Dunhuang is located in the hexi corridor is the most western end, the northern edge of the qinghai-tibet plateau area, is sweet, the green, the new three provinces at the junction, is one of the four town of hexi in history. A total of 150000 people, covers an area of 30000 square kilometers.
Dunhuang is the national famous historical and cultural city, has a history of more than 2000 years ago. It is beyond the ancient silk road, qiang tathagata (qinghai road), west south, north crossed the border fortress. From the northeast line too anxi, dunhuang for hexi avenue to the central plains; West out of the sunlight, western region south road, connected with the ruoqiang county of xinjiang along the silk road; Northwest line yumenguan, along the west, north to hami and lop nur were systematically stud Ed Dunhuang south through thoroughly kazak autonomous county, more than the altun, direct the golmud in qinghai province.
Dunhuang grottoes, also known as the mogao grottoes, thousand-buddha grottoes, located 25 kilometers southeast of dunhuang the singing of the cliffs, is one of the world famous four grottoes, also represents China's largest and most abundant content, artistic value of the highest, grotto art is regarded as "the pearl of the silk road".
In 1900, more than fifty thousand volumes of religious and secular documents found that make the dunhuang mogao grottoes and enjoy "the world art treasure house", "the greatest existing buddhist art treasure of the world", the double crown. In December 1987, UNESCO listed the mogao grottoes on the world heritage list.
The characteristics of the mogao grottoes art in building, statues and murals on the organic combination of the painted sculpture art outstanding accomplishments, rich imagination and romantic, fresco composition grand changeable, coloring more heavy and complicated, smooth fine lines, with strong artistic appeal. Wat zen, shadow, palace, tower, temple, dome top wat wait for a variety of shape; Painted circle, floating, shadow, good karma and other forms; Murals statue like, JingBian, historic stories, Buddhism, architecture, landscape, feed, animal, decoration, such as different content, the time span of one thousand six hundred years, is a rare precious cultural treasure.
Dunhuang in gansu, qinghai, xinjiang junction of three provinces (area). Population of more than 180000, the city's economy is mainly on agriculture, tourism services, for dunhuang once glorious and is famous for its extensive and profound cultural connotation.
Dunhuang south pillow magnificence of qilian mountain, west meets the vast expanse of the taklamakan desert, snake song north Rocky Mountains in the north, east three mountain peak rock abrupt sceneries. Area of 3.12 square kilometers. A warm temperate climate. Annual rainfall is only 39.9 mm, and the evaporation is 2400 mm. Full of sunshine, frost-free period is long. In the mountains embrace the natural small basin, DangHe snow water moistens garden, green shade blocked black wind sand; Grain security, melons and fruits of the four seasons fragrance; Wonders mysterious desert, gobi phantom sea quirky; The world famous cultural heritage, talented people... Beauty of dunhuang, was a productive land, magic and attractive.
", big also; bright, also." Grand glory of dunhuang has a long history, splendid culture! As early as the late primitive society, the central plains tribes are migrating to the defeat of hexi three miao people thrive here. Is given priority to with hunting, they are beginning to grasp the original agricultural production technology. Dunhuang area had excavated neolithic flint knives, stone axes and pottery, bronze. Xia, shang and zhou, dunhuang belong to the scope of the ancient melon states, there are three seedling seed, then call qiang Dijon nomadic settled here. Found in dunhuang nomadic people left many of the paintings vividly so far. The warring states period and the warlords, dunhuang area inhabited by a large moon people, sun and kinds of people. Mergers and acquisitions, big moon people is strong, the original qiang Dijon. The end of the warring states period, the great the rouzhi roamed out black sun, plug, exclusive dunhuang until the end of the qin dynasty at the beginning of the han.
Dunhuang has experienced a baptism of - Tang Yu, splendid culture, cultural sites, such as the mogao grottoes, yulin grotto, west thousand-buddha grottoes mainly landscape. The mogao grottoes of dunhuang grottoes, known as "the pearl of the Oriental art," said, is China's largest existing grottoes, retained the ten dynasties, after one thousand years of 492 caves, murals of more than 45000 square meters, painted over 2000 seats. Theme from buddhist stories, there are also reflects the folk, farming, hunting, murals, marriage funeral, festival happiness, etc. These murals painted superb techniques and has been recognized as "the dawn of human civilization, the world buddhist art treasure house.
Ning zong open jubilee two years (1206 AD), yuan MAO temujin, genghis khan unified MoBei the tribes, established the powerful tribal alliances. In 1227, the Mongol armies out xixia, conquer sand state, hexi area belongs to the yuan dynasty. Since then, the rise of dunhuang for sand state road, belonging to gansu province line book. After promoted to bar manager office. The yuan dynasty expedition to the west, only dunhuang. Then the melon, the sand two states station troops, camp has, settlement agriculture DangHe, shule river basin. Dunhuang once presented the economic and cultural prosperity, and the western trade more frequently. Famous traveler Italian Marco Polo is via roaming around the central plains dunhuang during this period. The yuan dynasty rulers also believed in Buddhism. The mogao grottoes of digging. Existing about 10 yuan dynasty grotto. Since the yuan dynasty, li hexi gradually lost its former brilliance.
After zhu yuanzhang built during the Ming dynasty, to wipe out yuan areas, send Song Guogong von odds soldier pacify hexi won three road, built the jiayuguan Ming Great Wall, rebuild the grave could. Ming dynasty in order to strengthen the northwest frontier defense, seven who set up the kansai. Yongle three years (AD 1405), set in dunhuang dealing with sand. After the turpan hami, dunhuang under threat. Ancient city of Ming dynasty and the sand state set up east left-back. Zhengde eleven years (AD 1516), dunhuang was occupied by turpan. Three years jiajing (1524 AD), the Ming dynasty ordered the closure jiayuguan, migrating to kansai civilians inside shanhaiguan pass, abandoned the melon, the sand two states. Since two hundred, dunhuang kuang no build, become "willow wind dispersal floor empty, quicksand don't day" on the desert land.
Late qing emperor kangxi, the qing dynasty gradually regained jiayuguan outside the area. Yongzheng three years (AD 1725), established in dunhuang dealing, and start from around 2400 immigrants to settle in dunhuang, the gansu province, at the same time, large Numbers of soldiers moved turpan, lop nur were systematically stud Ed states along the sand. Yongzheng, at the end of the bar has been cultivated land 100000 mu, lead DangHe 10 canal irrigation water, agriculture was soon recovery and development, formed the hexi corridor in the west of the gobi oasis. To qianlong twenty-five years (1760 years), changed the sand at litres of dunhuang county, belonging to anxi directly affiliated to the state, until the xinhai revolution, after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, has been the lack of dunhuang is located. County of dunhuang city, set up in 1987, approved by the state council. In 1986 was named "China's famous historical and cultural city" of the state council.
Dunhuang, after vicissitudes of life, ups and downs, several steps stumble through nearly five thousand years long mileage. Long history gave birth to the brilliant ancient culture of dunhuang, dunhuang still brilliant; That the earth's cultural relics sites, ancient book literatures, beautiful grotto art, mysterious strange mountain different water... That looks like the ancient city, making the gobi oasis more lush and vibrant, is like a piece of jade inlay is green and luxuriant. On the golden desert, more beautiful, more brilliant.
Dunhuang is located in the western end of the hexi corridor in gansu province is located in gansu, qinghai, xinjiang, the junction of three provinces (area), the south qilian mountain, mazong mountain are north, east, and west sides of the gobi desert, an average elevation of 1138 meters, the formation of the north-south high, intermediate low, from the west to the northeast tilt basin plain, the city's total area of 3.12 square kilometers, of which the oasis area of 1400 square kilometers, accounted for only 4.5% of the total area, and surrounded by a desert gobi, reason has "gobi oasis". Dunhuang is located in the interior, obvious is characterized by dry climate, large temperature difference between day and night, less rainfall, evaporation, sunshine time is long, clear four seasons. Due to the lack of rain, the annual average rainfall of 39.3 millimeters, evaporation is 2486 mm, so has the obvious desert climate characteristics, belongs to the typical continental arid climate.
Oasis by DangHe tonic, originated in qilian mountain north flow DangHe, total length of 390 km, the basin area of 1.68 square kilometers, the annual runoff is 328 million cubic meters, is an important water conservancy lifeblood of dunhuang, except DangHe in surface water east and west ditch, ditch, south lake springs, spring always overflow volume of 3.14 cubic meters per second, annual runoff is 99.023 million cubic meters. The development and utilization of groundwater, dunhuang has become the main source of people's living water and industrial water. The city's total population of 150000 people, including agricultural population 94600 people. In han Chinese population accounts for the vast majority, hui, Mongolian, Tibetan, uygur, miao, manchu, earth, tujia, kazak, dongxiang, abundant solid 10 ethnic minorities accounted for only 1.06%. City governs 2 town 10 townships, 79 villagers committee, 381 villagers group. Sand town is home to the municipal party committee and municipal government, the state is the city's political, economic and cultural center. Seven 7 kilometers from west of the town is a new type of oil city building is very beautiful, who is now an affiliated stations in qinghai petroleum administration bureau, the population of permanent residents in more than 30000.
The total land area of 265600 mu, all is irrigated. Because of the fertile soil, irrigation condition is good, suitable for all kinds of crops. The main crops are wheat, corn, cotton, sesame, melons, vegetables and so on. Oasis in the orchard area of 43318 mu, the main variety of fruit is apple, pear, peach, apricot, jujube, grape, etc., can produce a variety of fruits a year more than 2000 kilograms.